Wednesday, December 20, 2023

MUSINGS from PRIYADARSHINI KARVE: Reflections on COP28 Outcome

 (The original Marathi article was published in Maharashtra Times Sunday Supplement on 17 Dec 2023. This is the English translation.)

Outcome of COP28

Priyadarshini Karve, Convener, Indian Network on Ethics and Climate Change (INECC)

After the industrial revolution in the mid-19th century in Europe, industrialization based on mineral coal and other fossil fuels took off in Europe. Although political empires of European countries broke down globally after the Second World War in the twentieth century, globalization of industrialization based on fossil fuels continued. Due to the increasing use of fossil fuels, the concentration of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases in the environment has increased, leading to a rise in average temperature, contributing to global warming, a phenomenon that became widely recognized after the 1960s through scientific research. Since 1980s scientists started warning that due to this temperature increase, the delicate balance of local weather everywhere will be disrupted, leading to adverse effects on people's livelihoods and economies in the coming century. Acknowledging this threat, the establishment of the 'United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change' (UNFCCC) took place in the 1990s under the auspices of the United Nations. In this field, the 'Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change' (IPCC) was established during the same period to gather scientific knowledge and to provide interpretations of the science for the policy makers across the world. It is expected that based on the periodic and well-publicized reports of the IPCC, the UNFCCC should formulate strategies to tackle global warming and participating countries should implement and adhere to them.

To monitor the progress of these efforts, annual sessions lasting two weeks are held in November-December. These gatherings are known as the 'Conference of Parties' or 'COP.'

In 1997, a significant decision was made during the third meeting of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) held in Kyoto, Japan, known as the 'Kyoto Protocol.' Recognizing that 37 developed countries have reaped the maximum benefit from the use of fossil fuels until the 1990s, it was considered their responsibility to save the world from the impending crisis. To reduce the emission of greenhouse gases, these countries committed to concerted efforts, and the new concept of carbon market emerged from this.

However, the developed countries did not fulfill their responsibilities under the agreement. By 2010, it was obvious that the Kyoto Protocol had totally failed. Nevertheless, the information about the issues related to global warming reached citizens and stakeholders in developed countries, leading to increased awareness. This lead to a few responsible industries taking action, but the efforts made were quite inadequate.

From the industrial revolution until the 2010s, there was a noticeable increase in the average temperature of the earth. This temperature rise had diverse consequences, affecting different parts of the world. There was a reduction in snow cover at the poles, an increase in the sea level, disruptions in rain cycle, and an increase in natural disasters like cyclones. The awareness of this global crisis reached ordinary people worldwide.

Scientists had indicated that if the unrestricted use of fossil fuels continued, the Earth could warm by more than 5-6 degrees Celsius by 2100. This warming had the potential to disrupt global socio-economic systems, affecting the lives of people and the environment. Perhaps these warnings gave an impetus to the negotiations and all the countries agreed on a new approach to tackle climate change in the COP at Paris in 2015.

The Paris Agreement in 2015 aimed to limit global warming to well below 2 degrees Celsius, and strive to keep it below 1.5 degrees Celsius above pre-industrial levels. Countries agreed to voluntary action plans and regular reporting of progress. The agreement acknowledged that developed nations, which had historically contributed more to greenhouse gas emissions and totally failed to implement the Kyoto agreement, needed to support developing nations in their efforts to address climate change. The Paris agreement was to be operationalised from the start of 2021 but that was delayed due to COVID-19 pandemic. However by now more or less all the countries have worked according to the agreement for a couple of years. New commitments are expected in 2025. Recently COP28 concluded in Dubai, United Arab Emirates. To take stock of the progress so far and to initiate formulation of the next set of commitments was the main agenda for this meeting.

After 2010, significant advancements in renewable energy technologies and some efforts under the Paris Agreement have led to a collective result. As a result, the estimated increase in the Earth's average temperature due to greenhouse gas emissions is now projected to stabilize around 3-4 degrees Celsius by 2100. Although this goal is more challenging than the target of limiting the increase to 1.5-2 degrees, if more ambitious commitments are made by countries every 5 years and if the low carbon technologies continue to develop rapidly, this target is still achievable.

Despite the progress, the global use of fossil fuels continues to rise. The Earth's average temperature has already increased by 1.2 degrees Celsius. According to scientists, limiting the temperature increase to 1.5 degrees is difficult but not impossible. If beyond 2030, fossil fuel consumption decreased globally and in the next two decades, it dropped to zero the target can be achieved. However if the fossil fuel continued to rise beyond 2030 the temperature increase will go beyond 1.5 degrees by 2050 and the second half of the 21st century will destroy the progress made by humans over the last 11-12 thousand years. Science is clearly warning that this is not a battle for some distant future but it is a battle for survival for you and me and our children and grandchildren that are already here. The future will be decided by what decisions are taken about the energy generation and use by us in our personal and professional lives and by the governments on the policy and implementation level. We are all creating the history of the future today.

The outcome of the COP28 that ended on 13 December should be seen in this background. This year's conference was hosted by a country at the forefront of providing fossil fuel to the world. The host country had chosen the head of its leading petroleum company to lead the conference. Therefore many people were afraid that the slow moving train of the Paris agreement might be derailed in this meeting.

It is crucial to address the continued use of mineral fuels to avoid reaching the 1.5-degree threshold and experiencing irreversible consequences. The future will witness changes in how countries, individuals, and businesses generate and utilize energy. The official implementation of the Paris Agreement is expected to begin in 2021, emphasizing the urgency of global cooperation. The Conference of Parties (COP 28) held in Dubai under the leadership of the United Arab Emirates provided a platform for discussing and advancing climate-related initiatives.

The beginning of the COP was marked by an important and satisfying decision. In the past year, during the 'COP 27' held in Sharm El Sheikh, Egypt, a significant decision was unanimously reached. To assist poorer countries facing the most severe impacts of climate change, a new fund named 'Loss and Damage' was proposed. Developed countries were urged to contribute. United Arab Emirates, being a prosperous but developing country, declared its commitment on the first day of 'COP 28' by contributing to this fund. This step put a moral pressure on the developed countries and several of them announced their own contributions. Unfortunately, the developed countries have yet to fulfil their promised financial assistance for adaption to the developing countries. This new fund has faced financial challenges, with only a few hundred thousand dollars announced despite the urgent need for billions for 'Loss and Damage.'

The last 2-3 days of extensive negotiations lead to a declaration that pleasantly surprised many.

In global geopolitics, the fossil fuel producers have such a strong grip on the world politics that in the past 27 years, the term 'fossil fuels' has not even been mentioned in any unanimous declaration from UNFCCC. Perhaps, for this reason, mineral fuel-producing countries needed to take leadership roles! Due to the global temperature rise caused by coal and other petroleum fuels, the world needs to transition away from fossil fuels, has been mentioned in various contexts in this declaration. However, there is also criticism that the wording is vague and can therefore create loopholes. However many people believe that now that the issue has been stated the ambiguities can be resolved over the years. Had this transition started from the start of the century many communities worst affected by climate change could have been saved. This regret has also been expressed by the few commentators.

Protestors at COP28 demanding that Africa must get technology and finance
to go in for renewable energy in a big way. 

Lack of economic aid required for developing countries to move away from mineral fuels was emphasized in this declaration. The developed countries had managed to keep such a mention out of the declarations for years. 'COP 28' has achieved success in this regard on the international stage. However, the failure of developed countries in this regard has not been explicitly mentioned. The declaration aspires to triple the renewable energy generation in this decade, and this needs to be welcomed.

These issues have been mentioned in the declaration. Now, these need to reflect in the declarations to come in 2025 from each country. For this, all wise and responsible citizens worldwide need to create public pressure on their governments. Can common people go beyond their national prides, to build bridges over the disagreements, debates, and wars of their national and international interests to build a global unity for the sake of the bright future of human society? This is the pertinent question.

Monday, December 11, 2023


(The original Marathi article was published in Lokmat daily on 8 Dec 2023. This is the English translation.) 

However much may the mercury rise, India says, coal must be burned!

At the UNFCCC Conference COP 28, 'What India will not do' is what we are saying!

The first week of the twenty-eighth annual meeting on global warming concluded on December 6 in Dubai. In addition to government delegations, representatives of various groups from around the world act as observers, of which I was one. If global warming is not controlled, economic-social-political system will collapse in next two-three decades. So the role India is taking in the negotiations in this conference is directly related to your and my daily life.

Dr Priyadarshini Karve speaking at a Press Conference organising by IGSSS
to highlight the plight of cities in the developing world in the face of climate change

India's annual average contribution to global warming since 2000 is third/fourth in the world. From the beginning, India was criticized for setting very modest goals under the Paris Agreement. But since India's share of the total greenhouse gas emissions in the last two hundred years is barely 3-4 per cent, there is no reason to set ambitious targets, was India's stand. It is against this background that the announcement that we have achieved our target of increasing the share of renewable energy sources in electricity generation ahead of schedule should be seen.

Two years ago there was to be a resolution for 'phasing out' mineral coal. India intervened at the last minute and demanded that the wording should be changed either to phasing out all fossil fuels or phasing down coal. This forced a change in the resolution to 'phasing down'. This issue is back on the agenda at this conference held in a fossil fuel producing country.

All fuel producing countries, including the host, have taken a stand that use of fossil fuels will continue, focus will be on reducing greenhouse gas emissions from mining and refining fossil fuels. India has made it clear that it will continue to use coal. Scientists and observers agree that the use of all fossil fuels should be phased out. In fact, many studies suggest that India's entire energy system can be based on renewable energy by 2047. Yet it is apparent that the Indian government is only taking a stand on continuing coal consumption due to pressure from large coal producers. India did not sign the two declarations that came out of the conference in the first week itself also because of the same pressure to some extent. 

On December 1, a manifesto was issued by 130 countries on reducing greenhouse gas emissions in food production systems. The use of mineral fuels has a major contribution in food production. Therefore, there is a need for technical and financial contribution to achieve food security while reducing the emission of greenhouse gases. India has reduced the use of diesel for irrigation by using solar pumps extensively. Instead of chemical fertilizers, organic fertilizers, natural farming, etc. Incentive schemes have also been implemented. But still India does not want to participate in this agreement. One reason may be that the goal of reducing methane emissions may be inconvenient due to the large livestock population, but there is also pressure from fossil fuel companies that produce chemical fertilizers.

Covid-19 highlighted the link between warming and health crises. Health systems require uninterrupted and good quality power supply. Therefore, a declaration to reduce greenhouse gas emissions while strengthening the world's health system was issued on December 3 by 124 countries.

India stayed away from with an official statement that the goals of this declaration were unrealistic. But there is an overall impression that India has taken this position as it has been prominently stated in the manifesto that power generation from coal should be reduced in order to reduce the emission of greenhouse gases from this sector. 

On the very first day of the conference the host country announced that it would contribute to the Loss and Damage fund. Except for the cities like Dubai and Abu Dhabi, the rest of the United Arab Emirates is backward, so this country is considered a developing country. So a developing country taking such a lead shamed developed countries like Germany, USA and others to also announce their contribution. There is indirect pressure on other capable developing countries like China, India, etc. Still no comment has been received from India in this regard.

In general, at least in the first week, what India will not do in terms of measures against the increase in temperature has been highlighted.

Priyadarshini Karve, Convener, Indian Network on Ethics and Climate Change (INECC)


Monday, May 29, 2023

माझं शहर माझी जबाबदारी - स्वच्छ, हिरव्या नद्या आणि बरंच काही हवं!!!!

प्रिय मित्रांनो, 

जागरूक नागरिकांसोबत सेल्फी!

पुणे नदी पुनरुज्जीवन (पीआरआर) चळवळीचा भाग होणे हा एक आव्हानात्मक प्रवास आहे. पुणे महापालिकेने प्रस्तावित केलेली आपल्या नदीकिनाऱ्यांवरील तथाकथित 'पुनरुज्जीवन' योजना रद्द व्हावी आणि जीवितनदी संस्थेने सुचवलेला पर्यावरणपूरक पर्याय स्वीकारावा, यासाठी जीवितनदी या संस्थेच्या पुढाकाराने सुरू झालेल्या चळवळीत सहभागी नागरिक विविध प्रकारे प्रयत्न करत आहेत!

नदीच्या ज्या भागात या प्रकल्पाअंतर्गत बेसुमार विनाशकारी काम सुरू करण्यात आले आहे, त्या भागात अधूनमधून फेरीचे आयोजन केले जाते. मी बंड गार्डनच्या परिसरातील अशाच एका फेरीत सहभागी झाले होते. तिथे मी ५०० मीटरपेक्षा कमी अंतरावर सुमारे ७००-१००० वृक्षांची बेकायदेशीर कत्तल पाहिली. आपण कल्पना करू शकता की या पट्ट्यालगतची झाडी किती घनदाट आहे. या ७००+ वृक्षांमध्ये चांगले वाढलेले, पन्नास वर्षे किंवा त्याहून जुने स्थानिक वृक्षही होते. या वृक्षांसोबत हजारो पक्षी, सस्तन प्राणी, कीटक आणि सूक्ष्मजीव (एक चांगली जैवविविधता) नांदत होते. यातील काही वृक्षांचे म्हणे पुनर्रोपण होणार आहे... पण इथे जे नष्ट होत आहे त्यात झुडपांपासून वृक्षांपर्यंत विविध स्तरांमध्ये वाढलेली वनश्री आहे. अगदी चांगल्या नैसर्गिक जंगलाची एक छोटी प्रतिकृतीच जणू.

कापण्यासाठी चिन्हांकित केलेले परिपक्व झाड

मात्र, विकासाची प्रक्रिया जलद गतीने व्हावी, यासाठी या वनश्रीवर राडारोडा व दगड टाकून निर्दयीपणे हे जंगल नष्ट केले जात आहे. माझे सहकारी सत्या आणि उमा म्हणाले की, ते या झाडांना 'जिवंत समाधी' देत आहेत.

हे ज्या पद्धतीने होत आहे ते निव्वळ अनाकलनीय आणि अतार्किक आहे, जुनी वाढलेली सध्याची झाडे आणि घनदाट वनश्री नष्ट करून त्या जागी हिरव्या गवताचे ठिपके, ठरावीक अंतरावर नियोजन करून लावलेली  एकांडी झाडे आणि काँक्रीटच्या रचना उभ्या करण्यातून काय साध्य होते?  आपले नदीकाठ शाश्वत करण्यासाठी नक्कीच वेगळे मार्ग काढावे लागतील.

बांधकामाच्या ढिगाऱ्याखाली पडलेली झाडे आणि झुडपे

नदीपात्र कसे कार्य करते, त्याची वैशिष्ट्ये काय आहेत आणि नदी कोणत्या परिसंस्थिकीय सेवा पुरवते याच्या मूलभूत समजेचा अभाव येथे स्पष्टपणे दिसून येतो. नदीचे पाणी जलपर्णीने भरलेले (आपल्याला नको असलेली हिरवाई) आणि दुर्गंधीयुक्त आहे. हा भाग बोट क्लबचाही भाग असल्याने येथे नौकाविहाराची व्यवस्था करण्याची योजना आहे, मात्र जोपर्यंत नद्यांमध्ये सातत्याने स्वच्छ पाणी येत नाही, तोपर्यंत त्यात बोटी चालविणे किंवा नदीतले इतर कोणतेही उपक्रम राबवणे अशक्य आहे. नदी मेली आहे, तिचे पुनरुज्जीवन करायला हवे आहे! 

नदीमध्ये जलपर्णी

नदीपात्रातल्या या विध्वंसाबरोबरच तिथे चालू असलेल्या कामावरील मजूरांच्या वसाहतीतील दृश्यही निराशाजनक होते. कामगार, त्यांचे कुटुंबीय आणि लहान मुले पत्र्याच्या तात्पुरत्या झोपड्यांमध्ये राहत असून उन्हाच्या तीव्र लाटेला सामोरे जात आहेत. मात्र या झोपड्यांना पूर्ण वाढलेल्या झाडांच्या सावलीचाच काय तो आधार आहे. काय विडंबन आहे पहा! 

बांधकाम कामगारांची तात्पुरती वसाहत

कामगार व त्यांच्या कुटुंबियां अवस्था आणि नदीकाठावरील विध्वंसक काम पाहून नदीकाठ विकासाची ही सारी प्रक्रिया किती निष्काळजी आणि अज्ञानी आहे, याची जाणीव होते! नागरिकांचे जीवनमान उंचावणे हा या प्रकल्पाचा एक हेतू आहे, असे त्यांचे म्हणणे आहे, पण त्याचे प्रतिबिंब या प्रक्रियेतसुध्दा उमटलेले नाही! 

असे म्हटले जाते की आम्ही पर्यावरणवादी किंवा कार्यकर्ते किंवा जे काही नाव ते आम्हाला नावे देतात ते आम्ही सर्व विकासाच्या विरोधात आहोत… तर होय, आम्ही आहोत या असल्या विकासाच्या विरोधात! कारण हे २०२३ आहे आणि आपण अजूनही १९८० च्या दशकात असल्यासारखे काम करत आहोत. त्या काळात आपल्याला 'शाश्वतता' हा शब्द माहीत होता पण त्याचा अर्थ पुरता आकळलेला नव्हता. आपण आपल्या आजूबाजूच्या आपल्याच लोकांना आणि आपल्या पर्यावरणाला कधीही महत्व दिले नाही, परंतु आता वेळ आली आहे की आपण स्वत: ला वाचविण्यासाठी शाश्वततेच्या आधुनिक निकषांचे पालन केले पाहिजे आणि आपल्या विकासाच्या कल्पनेला शाश्वत विकास लक्ष्यांशी जोडून घेतले पाहिजे.  

जागतिक वातावरण बदलाच्या संकटामुळे वाढता उकाडा आणि दिवसागणिक हवामानात अचानक होणारे बदल यांना आपण सामोरे जात आहोतच. त्यात ही निष्काळजी, बेफिकीरी, पैसा कमावण्याची हाव आपल्याला परवडणारी नाही. आपली अर्थव्यवस्था भरभराटीला यावी जरूर, पण आपले पर्यावरण आणि आपले लोक यांचीही भरभराट व्हायला हवी!!!

शहरात होत असलेला हा तथाकथित विकास पाहिल्यानंतर एक जागरूक नागरिक म्हणून मला माझ्या प्रश्नाचे उत्तर हवे आहे - आपण कुठे जात आहोत???

कोणत्याही सुशोभीकरणाआधी आम्हाला मूलभूत सेवांची आवश्यकता आहे, त्यापैकी काहींची ही यादी.

प्रदूषणमुक्त व सुरक्षित सुरक्षित सार्वजनिक जागा .

स्वच्छ नद्या.

खड्डेमुक्त रस्ते .

योग्य सावली असलेले सुरक्षित वाहन तळ. 

वाहतुकीचे कार्यक्षम व्यवस्थापन.

चालणे आणि सायकल चालविण्यासाठी सुरक्षित रस्ते.

फक्त आवश्यक तिथेच उड्डाणपूल (आणि आपल्या टेकड्यांचा बळी देणारे उड्डाणपूल अजिबात नकोत).

कार्यक्षम कचरा व्यवस्थापन सेवा (अर्थातच वर्गीकरण केलेला कचरा कचरावेचकांना देण्याची जबाबदारी नागरिकांची!) 100% सेंद्रिय कचऱ्याचे जागेवरच व्यवस्थापन (कंपोस्ट / बायोगॅस / बायोचार अशी तंत्रे वापरून).

सांडपाण्यावर १०० टक्के प्रक्रिया करून या पाण्याचा बांधकामासाठी वापर करून स्थानिक गोड्या पाण्याच्या स्त्रोतांवरील भार कमी करणे. 

विजेचे कार्यक्षम, सातत्यपूर्ण आणि स्वच्छ स्त्रोत आणि शाश्वत पाणी पुरवठा. 

जेथे शक्य असेल तेथे (निवासी वसाहतींत शक्यतो १०० टक्के) पावसाचे पाणी साठवणे.

असलेले भूजलवाहक, नैसर्गिक व सांस्कृतिक वारसा क्षेत्रे आणि आपल्या टेकड्या आणि नद्यांचे संवर्धन व संरक्षण. 

या यादीत आणखीही भर घातली जाऊ शकते. या गुगल फॉर्मद्वारे आपण आपल्या सूचना पाठवू शकता. 

जोपर्यंत हे सारे होत नाही, तोपर्यंत आपल्या नैसर्गिक परिसंस्थेची मोडतोड करणाऱ्या आणि गडद काळ्या भविष्याचे कृत्रिम हिरवे चित्र रंगवणाऱ्या कोणत्याही सुशोभित नदीकाठ प्रकल्पाची आपल्याला गरज नाही!

पौर्णिमा आगरकर.

PS: Marathi translation by Dr Priyadarshini Karve .

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Saturday, May 20, 2023

My City My Responsibility - Need Clean, Green Rivers and much more!!!!

 Dear Friends, 

Selfie with fellow concerned citizens!

Being part of the Pune River Revival (PRR) movement has been a challenging journey. Everyday a group of concerned citizens and members of Jeevitnadi, the organisation which is spearheading this movement are striving harder from all the spheres just to ensure that the so-called 'rejuvenation' plan on our RIVERFRONT proposed by the Pune Municipal Corporation (PMC) be SCRAPPED and the ecological ALTERNATIVE suggested by Jeevitnadi team be adopted! 

Mature tree marked to be cut

Every now and then there's a walk on the stretches where the rampant devastating work has been initiated. I visited the stretch at the Bund Garden where I witnessed illegitimate cutting of almost 700-1000 trees in a stretch of less than 500 m. You can imagine how dense is the vegetation along the stretch. Among these 700+ trees there were several trees that were old grown mature heritage trees that housed thousands of birds, mammals, insects and microorganisms (a good biodiversity). There are a number of trees that are planted for transplanting blah blah...while a lot of them are shrubs forming a kind of layered vegetation, a mini version of forest setting that we generally see in a typical forest ecosystem. 

However, this vegetation is being ruthlessly cleared either by cutting or simply dumping construction debris on it in order to ensure fast tracking the DEVELOPMENT process. My fellow citizens Satya and Uma said that they are giving LIVE samadhi to these trees in Marathi it is 'Jivant Samadhi'.

The way this is taking place is simply mindless and illogical, because there's no point in clearing old grown existing trees and dense vegetation just to create newly grown green grass patches along with other manicured vegetation and concrete structures. Definitely there has to be a way out in order to make our riverfront sustainable! 

Trees and shrubs dumped under the debris

The basic LACK of understanding in HOW the riverbed functions, WHAT are its features and WHAT ecosystem services it offers can be clearly seen here. The river water is full of water hyacinth (green that we don't want) and is smelly. Since this stretch is also part of the Boat club there's plan to have boating activity here, however unless we have consistent clean running water in the rivers, boat rides or any activity along the river is worthless. The river is dead, needs restoration!  

Water hyacinth in the river

Apart from this destruction, the scene at the construction labor colony, had been a disheartening scene too. The workers, their families and young ones are residing in tin sheet temporary hutments and facing the scorching heat waves. However these hutments are being sheltered by the full grown trees demarcated to be cleared. What an irony! 

Construction workers colony

Seeing their condition and the destructive site work just gives one an understanding that how careless and ignorant is the overall process of riverfront development! They say project intends to give quality of life to the citizens but it does not reflect in the process! 

If then it is said that WE the environmentalist or activists or whatever names they call us are against development then YES, we are! Because this is 2023 and we are still functioning as if we are in the 1980's when we knew the word 'sustainability' without knowing its meaning. We never valued our people and our environment but now is the time we better adhere to the present norms and align ourselves to the Sustainable Development Goals in order to save ourselves.  

With the rising heat and abrupt changes in day to day weather because of the Climate crisis that we all are in, we cannot afford this careless, mindless, money minting attitude. Lets ensure our economy thrives but so does our environment and our people!!!

As a concerned citizen I want answers to all the so-called development happening in the city as to where are we heading???

We need our basic services in place, listing some of them below.

  • Pollution free spaces. 
  • Clean rivers.
  • Safe public spaces.
  • Pothole free roads.
  • Appropriate shaded parking spaces. 
  • Efficiently managed traffic.
  • Safe walking and cycling spaces.
  • Less or only required flyovers (and NO flyovers at the expense of our hills).
  • Efficient waste management services (segregation first by citizens of course!) with 100% organic waste managed at source (compost/biogas/biochar).
  • 100% treatment of wastewater and using this water for construction activities reducing load on local fresh water sources. 
  • Efficient, consistent and clean sources of electricity and sustainable water supply. 
  • Rainwater harvesting wherever feasible and 100% for residential complexes.
  • Conservation of existing aquifers, green spaces, heritage areas and our hills and water bodies. 

More can be added to the list. Please share your opinion on this poll: Click here

Unless we have these in place, we DON'T need any beautified riverfront that compromises our natural ecosystem services and paints artificial green picture having a dark black future!

Pournima Agarkar.

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